Part I
Constitutional Foundations

5. European Law I: Nature—Direct Effect  

Further Reading


J. Bast, Grundbegriffe der Handlungsformen der EU: entwickelt am Beschluss als praxisgenerierter Handlungsform des Unions- und Gemeinschaftsrechts (Springer, 2006)

J.-V. Louis, Les Règlement de la Communauté économique européenne (Presses universitaires des Bruxelles, 1969)

M. Mendez, The Legal Effects of EU Agreements (OUP, 2013)

S. Prechal, Directives in EC Law (OUP, 2006)

A. Schrauwen & J. Prinssen, Direct Effect: Rethinking a Classic of EC Legal Doctrine (Europa Law Publishing, 2004)


Articles (and Chapters)

J. H. J. Bourgeois, ‘Effects of International Agreements in European Community Law: Are the Dice Cast?’ (1983–4) 82 Michigan Law Review 1250–73

P. Craig, ‘Once Upon a Time in the West: Direct Effect and the Federalisation of EEC Law’ [1992] 12 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 453

A. Dashwood, ‘From Van Duyn to Mangold via Marshall: Reducing Direct Effect to Absurdity’ [2006/07] 9 Cambridge Yearbook of European Legal Studies 81

M. Dougan, ‘The “Disguised” Vertical Direct Effect of Directives’ [2000] 59 Cambridge Law Journal 586–612)

S. Drake, ‘Twenty Years after Von Colson: The Impact of “Indirect Effect” on the Protection of the Individual’s Community Rights’ (2005) 30 EL Rev. 329

S. Gaspar-Szilagyi, ‘The “Horizontal Direct Effect” of EU International Agreements: Is the Court Avoiding a Clear Answer?’ (2015) 42 Legal Issues of Economic Integration 93

N. Ghazaryan, ‘Who are the “Gatekeepers”? In Continuation of the Debate on the Direct Applicability and the Direct Effect of EU International Agreements’ (2018) 37 YEL 27

M. Klammert, ‘Judicial Implementation of Directives and Anticipatory Indirect Effect: Connecting the Dots’ [2006] 43 CML Rev 1251

P. Pescatore, ‘The Doctrine of “Direct Effect”: an Infant Disease of Community Law’ (1983) 8 EL Rev. 155

S. Prechal, Does Direct Effect Still Matter?, (2000) 37 CML Rev 1047

L. Squintani and J. Lindeboom, ‘The Normative Impact of Invoking Directives: Casting Light on Direct Effect and the Elusive Distinction between Obligations and Mere Adverse Repercussions’ (2019) 38 YEL 18

J. Steiner, ‘Direct Applicability in EEC Law – A Chameleon Concept’ [1982] 98 Law Quarterly Review 229–248

G. Winter, ‘Direct Applicability and Direct Effect. Two Distinct and Different concepts in Community Law’ [1972] CML Rev 425

B. de Witte, ‘Direct Effect, Primacy and the Nature of the Legal Order’ in: P. Craig and G. de Búrca (eds.), The Evolution of EU Law (OUP, 1999), 323